# Multiplication

1. Multiplication of $4-$digit numbers by $1-$digit numbers
2. Multiplication by $10$ and its multiples
3. Multiplication of $2-$digit numbers by $2-$digit numbers
4. Multiplication of $3-$digit numbers by $2-$digit numbers

In Primary $2$ and $3$, we have learnt the multiplication tables of $1$ to $10$

Question 1:

Solve the following multiplication.

$8 × 9 =$ __________

1. $54$
2. $56$
3. $64$
4. $72$

Solution:

$8 \times 9 = 72$

$(4) \;72$

Question 2:

Solve the following multiplication.

$18 \times 7 =$ __________

1. $124$
2. $126$
3. $134$
4. $136$

Solution:

$(2) \;126$

## 1. Multiplication Of 4-Digit Numbers By 1-Digit Numbers

The multiplication of $4-$digit numbers by $1-$digit numbers is similar to the multiplication of $3-$digit numbers by $1-$digit numbers.

Example:

$1936 × 7 =$ __________

Solution:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4:

$13 \,552$

Question 1:

Solve the following multiplication.

$3918 \times 5 =$ __________

Solution:

$19 \,590$

## 2. Multiplication By 10 And Its Multiples

When we multiply a whole number by $10$, we add one ‘$0$’ after the number.

For instance,

\begin{align*}​ 5 \times 10 &= 50 \\ 15 \times 10 &= 150 \\ 215 \times 10 &= 2150 \end{align*}

What do you think happens when we multiply a whole number to a multiple of $10$?

We express the multiple as a product of $10$ and a number.

Let’s try the following.

Example:

$5 \times 30 =$ __________

Solution:

We express $30$ as a product of $3$ and $10$.

\begin{align*}​ 5 \times 30 &= 5 \times 3 \times 10 \\ &= 15 \times 10 \\ &= 150 \end{align*}

$150$

Question 1:

Solve the following multiplication.

$22 \times 10 =$ __________

$220$

Question 2:

Solve the following multiplication.

$51 \times 10 =$ __________

$510$

Question 3:

Solve the following multiplication.

$38 \times 50 =$ __________

Solution:

 \begin{align*}​ 38 \times 50 &= 38 \times 5 \times10 \\ &= 190 \times 10 \\ &= 1900 \end{align*}

$1900$

Question 4:

Solve the following multiplication.

$94 \times 50 =$ __________

Solution:

 \begin{align*}​ 94 \times 50 &= 94 \times 5 \times 10 \\ &= 470 \times 10 \\ &=4700 \end{align*}

$4700$

Question 5:

Solve the following multiplication.

$74 \times 60 =$ __________

Solution:

 \begin{align*}​ 74 \times 60 &= 74 \times 6 \times 10\\ &= 444 \times 10\\ &= 4440 \end{align*}

$4440$

Question 6:

Solve the following multiplication.

$1059 × 90 =$ __________

Solution:

 \begin{align*}​ 1059 \times 90 &= 1059 \times 9 \times 10 \\ &= 9531 \times 10 \\ &= 95 310 \end{align*}

$95 \,310$

## 3. Multiplication Of 2-Digit By 2-Digit Numbers

Now, let’s multiply a $2-$digit number by a $2-$digit number.

Step 1:

We multiply the first number by the digit in the ones place of the second number.

Step 2:

We multiply the first number by the digit in the tens place of the second number.

Step 3:

Question 1:

Solve the following multiplication.

$18 \times 12 =$ __________

Solution:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

You can see $12 = 10 + 2$

\begin{align*}​ 18 \times 10 &= 180 \\ 18 \times 2 &= 36 \\ 180 + 36 &= 216 \end{align*}

$216$

Question 2:

Solve the following multiplication.

$67 \times 38 =$ __________

Solution:

$2546$

Question 3:

Solve the following multiplication.

$27 \times 31 =$ __________

Solution:

$837$

## 4. Multiplication Of 3-Digit By 2-Digit Numbers

The multiplication of $3-$digit numbers by $2-$digit numbers is similar to the multiplication of $2-$digit numbers by $2-$digit numbers.

Step 1:

We multiply the first number by the digit in the ones place of the second number.

Step 2:

We multiply the first number by the digit in the tens place of the second number.

Step 3:

Question 1:

Solve the following multiplication.

$132 \times 18 =$ __________

Solution:

Step 1:

Step 2:

Step 3:

You can see, $18 = 10 + 8$.

\begin{align*}​ 132 \times 10 &= 1320 \\ 132 \times 8 &= 1056 \\ 1320 + 1056 &= 2376 \end{align*}

$2376$

Question 2:

Solve the following multiplication.

$413 \times 26 =$ __________

Solution:

$10 \,738$

Question 3:

Solve the following multiplication.

$634 × 38=$ __________

Solution:

$24 \,092$

Continue Learning
Multiplication Whole Numbers
Multiplication And Division Decimals
Model Drawing Strategy Division
Fractions Factors And Multiples
Area And Perimeter 1 Line Graphs
Conversion Of Time
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