Study P6 English Synthesis: Past Participle Verb - Geniebook

Synthesis: Past Participle Verb

Synthesis is a combination of components or elements to form a connected whole. In this article, we will look at synthesis from the perspective of Past Participle Verbs. Different types of verbs are used with  different tenses. In this article, we shall focus mainly on past participle verbs.

 

Past Participle

It refers to an action that was started and completed entirely in the past. 

We use the past participle when we are talking about the first of two events completed in the past. We must use “has/have/had” before the verb. For example, begun is the participle form of the verb begin. We never use the word begun alone in a sentence. We always use it with has/have/had. E.g. He had begun dancing at 6 pm.

 

Usage of ‘Had’

Example:

Jessie might have gone to the party if James had invited her.

Event 1: Invitation (could have happened!)

Event 2: Jessie going to the party

(Present: Jessie has since forgiven James and they went on to join Team Rocket)

Rephrase this sentence.

 

Solution:

Had James invited her, Jessie might have gone to the party.

Explanation:

In the above example, we see that “had” has been used. There are a few reasons why ‘had’ was chosen.

“Had” can be used to tell us:

  • A possibility
  • If the past was different

In the above example - “Had James invited her, Jessie might have gone to the party.” - the use of the word ‘had’ indicates a possibility. If only James would have invited Jessie but in actuality, James did not invite Jessie.


 

Let us see another sentence where the word ‘had’ is used with a different meaning.

Example:

Had I known, I would not have eaten that salsa.

 

Explanation:

In this sentence, “Had I known, I would not have eaten that salsa”, the usage of the word ‘had’ indicates a different past. This sentence means that I did not know about the type of that salsa and thus I ate it. But if I had known about it, I would not have eaten it. Thus, here the use of the word ‘had’ meant that the past could have been different.


 

Question 1:

Tom might have gone for the show if Jerry had invited him.

Use Had …to rephrase the sentence

 

  1. Had Tom gone for the show, Jerry had invited him.
  2. Had Tom gone for the show, Jerry would have invited him.
  3. Had Jerry invite him, Tom had gone for the show.
  4. Had Jerry invited him, Tom might have gone for the show.

 

Solution: 

(4) Had Jerry invited him, Tom might have gone for the show.

 

 

Question 2:

As a result of his arrogance, Franklin lost all his admirers.

Rephrase this sentence using ‘had’.

 

  1. Had Franklin been arrogant, he would have lost all his admirers.
  2. Had Franklin not been arrogant, he would have lost all his admirers.
  3. Had Franklin not been arrogant, he would not have lost all his admirers.
  4. Had Franklin been arrogant, he would not have lost all his admirers.

 

Solution: 

(3) Had Franklin not been arrogant, he would not have lost all his admirers.

 

 

Question 3:

Because of his procrastination, Samuel could not meet his deadline.

Had Samuel __________  __________, he could have met his deadline.

 

  1. not procrastinated
  2. procrastinated
  3. not have procrastinated
  4. procrastinate

 

Solution:

(1) not procrastinated


 

Vocabulary Words

Here let us see some usages of the same word in different contexts.

  • Procrastinate: to delay doing something for no good reason. It means to put off.

To put off this important task will be a put off to my conscience.

  • Put off - Here it means procrastinating.
  • Put off - Here it means irritation.

 

  • Treason - is the crime of betraying one’s country, especially by attempting to kill or overthrow a sovereign or government to which one owes allegiance.

He was convicted of treason and sentenced to life imprisonment.

 

  • Riot - a violent disturbance of the peace by a crowd, an impressive display of something
    • Riots broke out in the capital.

Here, the word riot is used as a violent disturbance of the peace.

  • The garden was a riot of color.

Here the word riot is used as an impressive display of flowers of different colors.


 

Question 4:

“Had Sylvia been more alert” has the same meaning as:

 

  1. If Sylvia were more alert
  2. If Sylvia had been more alert
  3. If Sylvia was not more alert
  4. If Sylvia had not been more alert

 

Solution:

(2) If Sylvia had been more alert


 

Usage of ‘Having’

“Having” is used to refer to the first of two actions that happened in the past.

Example: 

After choosing a color, Theresa bought a scarf.

Event 1: Theresa chose a color.

Event 2: Theresa bought a scarf.

(Present: Theresa is happily flooding her Whatsapp with the blurry shots of her selfies with the abovementioned scarf.)

Rephrase this sentence using ‘having’.

 

Solution: 

Having chosen a color, Theresa bought a scarf.

Explanation:

Here ‘chosen’ is the participle.

 

 

Question 5:

After downloading the application, Mary waited patiently for it to install.

Rephrase it using ‘having’.

 

  1. Having download the application, Mary waited patiently for it to install.
  2. Having downloaded the application, Mary waited patiently for it to install.
  3. Having patiently waited for it to install, Mary downloaded the application.
  4. Having patiently wait for it to install, Mary had downloaded the application.

 

Solution: 

(2) Having downloaded the application, Mary waited patiently for it to install.

 

 

Question 6:

Miu Seek wrote several critically acclaimed songs. He was recognized as a talented songwriter at a recent ceremony.

Having …

 

  1. Having written several critically acclaimed songs, Miu Seek was recognized as a talented songwriter at a recent ceremony.
  2. Having been recognized as a talented songwriter at a recent ceremony, Miu Seek wrote several critically acclaimed songs.
  3. Miu Seek?? What kind of name is that?! Is his sister called Jyn Gurl???

 

Solution:

(1) Having written several critically acclaimed songs, Miu Seek was recognized as a talented songwriter at a recent ceremony.

 

 

Question 7:

Moana was exhausted after swimming across the Pacific Ocean.

Having…

 

  1. Having swam across the Pacific Ocean, Moana was exhausted.
  2. Having swum across the Pacific Ocean, Moana was exhausted.
  3. Having been exhausted, Moana swam across the Pacific Ocean.
  4. Having exhaustion, Moana swum across the Pacific Ocean.

 

Solution:

(2) Having swum across the Pacific Ocean, Moana was exhausted.

 

 

Question 8:

What is the Past Participle of ‘sing’?

 

  1. Sing
  2. Sang
  3. Sung
  4. song

 

Solution:

(3) Sung

 

 

Question 9:

One of the following sentences is incorrect. Identify the incorrect sentence.

 

  1. Having spoken to her family about the problem, Zoe fully understood it.
  2. Georgia fully understood the problem after speaking to her family about it.
  3. Having spoken to her family about it, Zoe fully understood the problem.
  4. Georgia spoke to her family about it after fully understanding the problem.

 

Solution:

(4) Georgia spoke to her family about it after fully understanding the problem.


 

Conclusion

In this article, we have learned some of the usages of past participle verbs. We also learned to rephrase sentences using “had” and “having”. 

I hope you have got a good grasp on the usage of past participle verbs. Read more and more to enhance your vocabulary and also improve your understanding of English grammar.


 

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Composition Structure
Phrasal Verbs: Separable & Transitive
Vocabulary Cloze
Synthesis: Past Participle Verb
Active And Passive Voice
Grammar Cloze
Editing: Grammar, Punctuation & Spelling
Composition Writing - Introductions And Endings
Synthesis & Transformation And Vocabulary Builder
Editing & Vocabulary Builder
Figures Of Speech And Occupations
Verb Forms And Gerunds
Last Lap: Verb Forms, Gerunds & Phrasal Verbs
If Conditionals - Varied Questions
Comprehension Cloze And Synthesis
Vocabulary Cloze & Comprehension Open Ended
Comprehension Cloze
Grammar Cloze & Visual Text
If-Conditionals: Simple Past & Simple Present
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