Study S2 English English - Summary Writing 3 - Geniebook

Summary Writing

Summary Writing

 

In this chapter, we would be discussing summary writing skills, identifying the summary points, how to replace keywords using synonyms and antonyms and how to change the word forms.

Let’s go through the topics to be covered in this chapter:

 

Summary Writing Skills 

  1.  

Factual Text: Rats

  • Identifying summary points 
  • Replacing keywords using synonyms
  • Replacing keywords using antonyms
  • Changing word forms
  1.  
  • Identifying question requirements
  • Rephrasing keywords using synonyms
  •  Eliminating redundancies

Factual Text

  • Why reading matters to children
  1.  
  • breaking down question requirements 
  • identifying points
  • paraphrasing/rephrasing key terms

 

Skills Practice

Things To Note For A Better Summary Response

Wasting food takes an environmental toil as well. Producing the food that no one eats squanders the water, fertilisers, pesticides, seeds, fuel and land needed to grow it. The quantities are not trivial. Globally a year’s production of uneaten food guzzles as much water as the entire annual flow of the Volga, Europe’s most voluminous river. Growing the 60 billion kilograms of food that retailers and consumers discard in the United States annually slurps more than 56 billion litres of oil, according to one author. These staggering numbers don’t even include the losses from farms, fishing vessels and slaughterhouses. If food waste were a country, it would be the third largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world, after China and the US.

 

 

Question 1:

Summarise the environmental harms from food wastage. Use your own words as far as possible.

Step 1: Highlight the main points that address the question. 

  • Squanders the water, fertilisers, pesticides, seeds, fuel and land needed to grow it.
  • The quantities are not trivial. (Note: This is an example of the bigger point: guzzles as much water as the entire annual flow of the Volga, Europe’s most voluminous river).
  • Slurps more than 56 billion litres of oil, according to one author
  • Third largest producer of greenhouse gases in the world...

Note: No statistics or quotes or redundancies in summary. Infer from example, if necessary.)

Step 2: When expressing in your own words, take note of how the following could improve your language marks:

  1. Appropriate sentence structure variation
  2. Appropriate synonyms that reflect the accuracy, connotation and intensity
  3. Change the word form when suitable synonyms cannot be found

 

Answer:  

Food wastage misuses the resources needed for food cultivation and these are wasted in massive amounts. A tremendous amount of oil is used up by food waste and it produces huge carbon emissions that cause climate change.

 

 

Identifying Points

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

Use only information from Paragraphs 3 to 5.

Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not counting the word given to help you begin).

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

 

Paragraph 3 (Identify 6 points)

Others have been making similar arguments for years, but reducing food waste has become a matter of international urgency. Some American schools, where children dump up to 40 per cent of their lunches into the trash, are setting up sharing tables, letting students serve themselves portions they know they’ll eat, and allotting more time for lunch- all proven methods of boosting consumption. Countless businesses, such as grocery stores, restaurants and cafeterias, have stepped forward to combat waste by quantifying how much edible food isn’t consumed, optimising their purchases, shrinking portion sizes, and beefing up efforts to move the excess to charities.

  • setting up sharing tables, letting students serve themselves portions
  • they know they’ll eat, and allotting more time for lunch- all proven methods of boosting consumption.
  • quantifying how much edible food isn’t consumed
  • optimising their purchases
  • shrinking portion sizes
  • beefing up efforts to move the excess to charities

Let’s understand the above topics with the help of some examples:

 

Question 1: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

A1:  Some American schools, where children dump up to 40 per cent of their lunches into the trash, are setting up sharing tables, where pupils can leave leftover snacks for their friends....

Paraphrased: One way to reduce food wastage is how __________.

(Choose the best option)

 

  1. Schools are creating guidelines on allowing students to eat discarded food
  2. Schools have established protocols to allow pupils to distribute their uneaten snacks to their peers
  3. Schools are encouraging communal eating to allow students to provide edible refuse to their schoolmates
  4. Schools have implemented measures to allow pupils to donate their uneaten food to the needy

 

Answer: 

(B) schools have established protocols to allow pupils to distribute their uneaten snacks to their peers.

 

 

Question 2: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

A2:  and allotting more time for lunch - all proven methods of boosting consumption

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. and assigned a longer lunch break to reduce food waste.
  2. and allocated a longer lunch break to reduce food waste.
  3. and ascribed a longer lunch break to reduce food waste.
  4. and set a longer lunch break to reduce food waste.

 

Answer:

(C) and ascribed a longer lunch break to reduce food waste.

Explanation:

The correct answer is option No (C) is not suitably paraphrased i.e. “and ascribed a longer lunch break to reduce food waste”. “Ascribed a longer lunch break” does not make any sense.

To ascribe means to regard something as being due to (a cause of some sort).

 

 

Question 3: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

A3:  Countless businesses, such as grocery stores, restaurants and cafeterias, have stepped forward to combat waste by quantifying how much edible food isn’t consumed...

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Numerous food outlets and supermarkets decipher the amount of uneaten food
  2. Numerous food outlets and supermarkets count the amount of uneaten food
  3. Numerous food outlets and supermarkets calculate the amount of uneaten food
  4. Numerous food outlets and supermarkets evaluate the amount of uneaten food

 

Answer: 

(A) numerous food outlets and supermarkets decipher the amount of uneaten food.

Explanation:

In this case, it really does not suit the idea of quantifying how much edible food is consumed. Quantifying probably means to count or calculate or evaluate. Hence, Option No 1 is the correct answer.

 

 

Question 4: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society has taken to reduce food wastage.

A4:  optimising their purchases,

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Buy the amount that they require
  2. Ensure that the food they buy is not excessive
  3. Fully utilise the food they buy
  4. Taking full advantage of the food they buy

 

Answer: 

(D) taking full advantage of the food they buy.

 

 

Question 5: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

A5: shrinking portion sizes for customers

Which of these options is MOST suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Minimise the food measurements for consumers
  2. Decrease the food dimensions for diners
  3. Dwindle the food volume for purchasers
  4. Reduce the food quantity for patrons

 

Answer:

(D) reduce the food quantity for patrons.

 

 

Question 6: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

A6: and beefing up efforts to move the excess to charities.

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. and strengthen excess food donation
  2. and reinforce excess food donation
  3. and exacerbating excess food donation
  4. and intensify excess food donation

 

Answer:

(C) and exacerbating excess food donation.

Explanation:

The reason Options (A), (C) and (D) are suitably paraphrased is because beefing up efforts can be to strengthen, exacerbate or reinforce, intensify, or do more efforts.

 

 

Conversation Questions

Question Skills

  1. Interpret what are the opinions being expressed.
  2. Highlight words like “explain his/her view” or “supports his/her view”.
  3. Ensure that the keywords in the conversation are present in your answers.
  4. “Explain fully” also requires you to give your own interpretation of the information given.

 

Identifying Question Requirements

Sample Question: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the positive effects of reading to children.

Use only information from Paragraphs 5 to 6.

Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).

Reading to children has been found to be highly beneficial...

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the positive effects of reading to children.

 

Keywords

  1. “positive effects” -  mention only the benefits.
  2. “children” - we do not have to pay attention to the benefits of reading on other groups of people. 
  3. “reading to” - this pertains to parents reading to children and not to children doing self-reading.

 

Rephrasing Key Words

Sample answer from the text: 

“Children who were read to at a young age were able to express themselves more eloquently.”

We identify the keywords to be changed:

  1. “express themselves” Articulate / Communicate their thoughts or ideas.
  2. “eloquently” Persuasively/ Fluently/ Convincingly.

 

Eliminating Redundancies

Sample answer from the text: 

“Children who were read to at a young age were able to express themselves more eloquently.”

  1. Since the noun “children” is already used at the start of our summary, we can use the pronoun “they” to refer to it.
  2. We can replace the words “were able to” simply with the modal “can” to show that they possess an ability.

Let’s understand the above topics with the help of some examples:

 

 

Question 7: 

Why reading matters to children (Para 5)

In his international bestseller The Read-Aloud Handbook, US author, Jim Trelease, writes, “The one prekindergarten skill that matters above all others, because it is the prime predictor of school success or failure, is the child’s vocabulary upon entering school”. Jim goes on to explain, “As you read to a child, you’re pouring into their ears and brain all the sounds, syllables and endings that will make up the words they will someday be asked to speak, read and understand. They will be able to express themselves more eloquently.” Equally important, the stories themselves fill in gaps of knowledge they need to understand things outside their immediate surroundings.

Should the portion in blue be used for your summary?

 

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

Answer:

(B) No

Explanation:

The correct answer is Option No (B) i.e. “No” because it does not give any positive effect of reading to the children. It just says that vocabulary predicts whether a child is successful or a failure. It just says vocabulary matters a lot but it is not a positive effect of reading to children.

 

 

Question 8: 

Why reading matters to children (Para 5)

In his international bestseller The Read-Aloud Handbook, US author ,Jim Trelease, writes, “The one pre kindergarten skill that matters above all others, because it is the prime predictor of school success or failure, is the child’s vocabulary upon entering school”. Jim goes on to explain, “As you read to a child, you’re pouring into their ears and brain all the sounds, syllables and endings that will make up the words they will someday be asked to speak, read and understand. They will be able to express themselves more eloquently.” Equally important, the stories themselves fill in gaps of knowledge they need to understand things outside their immediate surroundings.

Should the portion in blue be used for your summary?  

 

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

Answer:

(A) Yes

Explanation:

The correct answer is Option No (A) i.e. Yes, as reading to the child gives them the words that they will use when they speak, read and understand things. 

So, reading to the child helps them to make out the words that help to boost their vocabulary. 

 

 

Question 9: 

“As you read to a child, you’re pouring into their ears and brain all the sounds, syllables and endings that will make up the words they will someday be asked to speak, read and understand.”

(Opening: Reading to children has been found to be highly beneficial...)

  1. in exposing the children to the traits of the words that they will verbalise and comprehend in future.
  2. in exposing the children to the features of the words that they will verbalise and comprehend in future.
  3. in exposing the children to the characteristics of the words that they will verbalise and comprehend in future.

Which of these sentences is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I
  2. I & II
  3. I & III
  4. I, II & III

 

Answer: 

(C) I, II & III.

 

 

Differences (Narrative Vs Descriptive)

Both narrative and descriptive essay writing require description. 

While narratives are focused on the character and plot development, descriptive essays require you to detail the sights and sounds of the physical scene and the actions of others through your senses.

Let’s understand the above topics with the help of some examples:

 

Question 10: 

Excerpt:

Crowded around the mahogany dining table was a gaggle of aunts, with some of them perched on the edge of the rickety chairs as they leaned in to share the latest gossip. Others were engaged in a heated debate over which of their children had the most impressive achievements, I briefly registered my sister being forcefully dragged into the conversation; her eyes as wide as saucers as the aunts mercilessly barraged her with questions on her marriage.

This excerpt focuses on the physical scene and details

The excerpt above is from a/an __________ essay.

 

  1. Argumentative
  2. Expository
  3. Narrative
  4. Descriptive

 

Answer: 

(D) Descriptive

 

 

Question 11:

Which of these options is not a step to build characters in your story?

 

  1. define your central charcter
  2. building tension until the climax
  3. develop the protagonist’s character traits
  4. decide on your supporting characters

 

Answer: 

(B) i.e. building tension until the climax.

Explanation:

The correct answer is Option No (B) i.e. building tension until the climax. It is actually a part of story building however this is not a step to build characters of the story.

 

 

Rohingya Refugees

The plight of Myanmar’s Rohingya refugees is desperately bleak as they are rendered stateless in their homeland and detained in transit nations, a rights group says. The Rohingyas are a Muslim ethnic minority group living in Myanmar’s western Rakhine State, bordering Bangladesh on the Bay of Bengal. Myanmar, also known as Burma, views its population of around 1.1 million Rohingyas as illegal Bangladeshi immigrants and denies them citizenship. They face a slew of restrictions that have led the United Nations to consider them one of the world’s most persecuted people.

 

Summary Skills

Breaking down question requirements

Rohingya Refugees

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the causes that forced the Rohingyas in Myanmar to escape from their homeland.

Use only the material from Paragraphs 2 to 4.

Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not counting the words given to help you begin). [15]

The Rohingyas in Myanmar escaped from their homeland, because...

 

Identifying Points

Rephrase key question.

“summarise the causes that forced the Rohingyas in Myanmar to escape from their homeland.”

  1. Why did the Rohingyas escape from Myanmar?
  2. What forced them to flee their homeland?
  3. How did the Burmese government drive them out?

 

Ask these questions when you consider each sentence.

 

 

Question 12: 

Para 2: 

Myanmar’s 2010 transition from a military-led government to a somewhat more democratic system led to some of the worst violence against Muslims. The national government has tacitly permitted the rise of the 969 movement, a group of Buddhist monks who employ “moral justification for a wave of anti-Muslim bloodshed,” Reuters reported. Since 2012, roughly 140,000 Rohingyas have fled northwestern Myanmar amid deadly fighting with the majority Buddhists. “The Burmese authorities, particularly the military, have a clear policy to push them out from Burma using persecution in almost every form possible,” Sunai Phasuk, HRW’s (Human Rights Watch) senior Thailand researcher, told the ABC.

Identify the causes that forced the Rohingyas in Myanmar to escape from their homeland

 

Answer:

  • rise of the 969 movement
  • amid deadly fighting
  • “The Burmese authorities, particularly the military, have a clear policy to push them out from Burma using persecution in almost every form possible,”

 

 

Question 13: 

Para 2: 

The national government has tacitly permitted the rise of the 969 movement, a group of Buddhist monks who employ “moral justification for a wave of anti-Muslim bloodshed,” Reuters reported. Since 2012, roughly 140,000 Rohingyas have fled northwestern Myanmar amid deadly fighting with the majority Buddhists.

The Rohingyas in Myanmar escaped from their homeland, because...

  1. of the emergence of the 969 movement, embroiling them in the brutal conflicts that erupted.
  2. of the inception of the 969 movement, embroiling them in the lethal brawls erupted.
  3. of the blossoming of the 969 movement, embroiling them in the fierce boxing erupted.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. III

 

Answer: 

(B) I & II

Explanation:

The 969 movements cannot be paraphrased as it is a name of a movement and we do not change any proper noun. What is changed is the word rise, it is changed to the emergence in Option (A) and to inception in Option (B). Deadly fighting is paraphrased into brutal conflicts in Option (A) and lethal brawls in Option (B).

Hence, either (A) and (B) are acceptable answers.

 

 

Question 14: 

Para 2:

“The Burmese authorities, particularly the military, have a clear policy to push them out from Burma using persecution in almost every form possible,” Sunai Phasuk, HRW’s (Human Rights Watch) senior Thailand researcher, told the ABC.

The Burmese government, especially the military, ...

  1. A) has dubious intentions to exile them from Burma, using humane treatment against the Rohingyas.
  2. B) has obvious intentions to purge the Rohingyas from Burma, using oppressive treatment against them.
  3. C) has clear intentions to remove the Rohingyas from Burma, using hostile treatment against them.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. III

 

Answer:

(C) II & III

 

 

Test Your Concepts

Answer the following questions based on the concepts we’ve covered in this article. If you get stuck, revisit the relevant section to revise the concepts.

 

Question 1: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society has taken to reduce food wastage.

A7: This last strategy - feeding the hungry - is the best use for superfluous food. In the US alone, 49 million people are officially food- insecure: they don’t always know where their next meal is coming from. To address this need, the charity Feeding America distributes around two billion kilograms of food a year, most of it donated by manufacturers, supermarkets, large growers and the federal government...

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. charities also give out the donated food to those affected by starvation
  2. charities also disburse the donated food to those terrorised by starvation
  3. charities also hand out the donated food to those threatened by starvation
  4. charities also allocate the donated food to those at risk of starvation



 

Question 2: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society have taken to reduce food wastage.

Paragraph 5 (Identify 1 point)

The first step in reducing food waste and food loss is getting people to perceive that there is a problem. Denial reigns supreme. But attitudes are slowly changing as the price of food rises, and as we become more aware of both the myriad ways that climate changes will lower food production and the imperative to sustainably coax ever more calories from land already under cultivation.

 

 

Question 3: 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the solutions that society has taken to reduce food wastage.

A8: The first step in reducing food waste and food loss is getting people to perceive that there is a problem... Denial reigns supreme.

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Efforts are also made to help people view and repudiate the obstacle of food waste.
  2. Efforts are also made to help people view and acknowledge the issue of food waste.
  3. Efforts are also made to help people view and admit the challenge of food waste.
  4. Efforts are also made to help people view and agree on the seriousness of food waste.

 

 

Question 4: 

Why reading matters to children (Para 5)

In his international bestseller The Read-Aloud Handbook, US author Jim Trelease writes, “The one prekindergarten skill that matters above all others, because it is the prime predictor of school success or failure, is the child’s vocabulary upon entering school”. Jim goes on to explain, “As you read to a child, you’re pouring into their ears and brain all the sounds, syllables and endings that will make up the words they will someday be asked to speak, read and understand. They will be able to express themselves more eloquently.” Equally important, the stories themselves fill in gaps of knowledge they need to understand things outside their immediate surroundings.

Should the portion in blue be used for your summary?

 

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

 

Question 5:

“the stories themselves fill in gaps of knowledge they need to understand things outside their immediate surroundings.”

  1. Stories help children to better comprehend their world.
  2. Fiction helps children to better interpret their realities.
  3. Tales help children make sense of their interpersonal relationships.

Which of these sentences is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. A
  2. A & B
  3. B & C
  4. A, B & C

 

 

Question 6:

Why reading matters to children (Para 6)

Children’s writer, Jackie French, the author of Diary of a Wombat is the Australian Children’s Laureate and a passionate advocate of reading to children. “A book gives

children the dreams to imagine their future and the tools to create it,” said Jackie. Books, particularly fiction, also build empathy, as children explore the world from another’s viewpoint, and are more likely to connect with people who differ in experience and status. “Every book, no matter how trivial, is a record of the way the author sees the world, a map of their values,” says Jackie. “Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.”

Should the portion in blue be used for your summary?

 

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

 

Question 7:

Why reading matters to children (Para 6)

Children’s writer, Jackie French, the author of Diary of a Wombat is the Australian Children’s Laureate and a passionate advocate of reading to children. “A book gives children the dreams to imagine their future and the tools to create it,” said Jackie. Books, particularly fiction, also build empathy, as children explore the world from another’s viewpoint, and more likely to connect with people who differ in experience and status. “Every book, no matter how trivial, is a record of the way the author sees the world, a map of their values,” says Jackie. “Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.”

Should the portion in blue be used for your summary?

 

  1. Yes
  2. No

 

 

Question 8:

“A book gives children the dreams to imagine their future and the tools to create it,”

  1. A) Reading helps them to envision what their lives will be and give them the means to build their future.
  2. B) Reading helps them to foster ideas on what their lives will be and give them the means to build their future.
  3. C) Reading helps them to see possibilities on what their lives will be and give them the means to build their future.

Which of these sentences is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

 

Question 9:

Excerpt:

Ah Xi, when are you and your lovely Caucasian husband going to have babies?” squealed Aunt Ling as the rest of the older women strategically placed themselves around Jessie to corner her in the dining hall. As the youngest aunt, Aunt Ling was eight years my senior, but she seemed to have forgotten attending Jessie’s wedding barely three months ago. “This gathering could use a few more toddlers to liven up the atmosphere. My Jacob is outgrowing his toys and moving on to storybooks; he’s only five!”

This excerpt focuses on the development of the story character and plot (with conflict, climax and resolution)

The excerpt above is from a/an __________ essay.

 

  1. Argumentative
  2. Expository
  3. Narrative
  4. Descriptive

 

 

Question 10:

Para 4: 

Mr Phasuk said the survivors of communal unrest are forced to live in “ghetto-like facilities” and are unable to return to their homes that were seized by their Buddhist neighbours. “HRW research in 2013 concluded that the atrocities committed against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state is a crime against humanity and bordering on ethnic cleansing,” he said. “This is a very serious situation and it explains why the Rohingyas cannot live in their homeland and have to take a ferry, a dangerous risk, at the hands of human traffickers and embark on this maritime exodus heading for a better life, a new life in another country.”

 

Identify the causes that forced the Rohingyas in Myanmar to escape from their homeland

 

 

Question 11:

Para 4:

Mr Phasuk said the survivors of communal unrest are forced to live in “ghetto-like facilities” and are unable to return to their homes that were seized by their Buddhist neighbours. “HRW research in 2013 concluded that the atrocities committed against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state is a crime against humanity and bordering on ethnic cleansing,” he said.

… against surviving Rohingya Muslims who are

  1. Coerced to reside in miserable dwellings
  2. Compelled to reside in unfavourable conditions.
  3. Confounded to reside in deplorable habitats.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I & III
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

 

Question 12: 

Para 4: 

Mr Phasuk said the survivors of communal unrest are forced to live in “ghetto-like facilities” and are unable to return to their homes that were seized by their Buddhist neighbours. “HRW research in 2013 concluded that the atrocities committed against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state is a crime against humanity and bordering on ethnic cleansing,” he said.

They cannot go back to their homes which have been …

  1. Taken over (by force) by their Buddhist neighbours.
  2. Captured by their Buddhist neighbours.
  3. Possessed by their Buddhist neighbours.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I & III
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

 

Question 13: 

Para 4

Mr Phasuk said the survivors of communal unrest are forced to live in “ghetto-like facilities” and are unable to return to their homes that were seized by their Buddhist neighbours. “HRW research in 2013 concluded that the atrocities committed against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state is a crime against humanity and bordering on ethnic cleansing,” he said.

They have been subjected to such a crime…

  1. That trespasses on basic human rights
  2. That disregards basic human rights
  3. That violates basic human rights

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I & III
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

 

Question 14: 

Para 4

Mr Phasuk said the survivors of communal unrest are forced to live in “ghetto-like facilities” and are unable to return to their homes that were seized by their Buddhist neighbours. “HRW research in 2013 concluded that the atrocities committed against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine state is a crime against humanity and bordering on ethnic cleansing,” he said.

... and to acts involving the …

  1. Mass expulsion of the Rohingya Muslims.
  2. Mass killing of the Rohingya Muslims.
  3. Mass genocide of the Rohingya Muslims.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I & III
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

 

Question 15:

Para 4: 

“This is a very serious situation and it explains why the Rohingyas cannot live in their homeland and have to take a ferry, a dangerous risk, at the hands of human traffickers and embark on this maritime exodus heading for a better life, a new life in another country.”

The Rohingya Muslims are thus …

  1. Searching for an improved life abroad.
  2. Exploring an improved life outside.
  3. Seeking an improved life elsewhere.

Which option(s) is/are acceptably paraphrased?

 

  1. I & III
  2. I & II
  3. II & III
  4. I, II & III

 

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