Study S2 Mathematics Maths- Congruence and Similarity - Geniebook

Congruence And Similarity

In this chapter, we will be discussing the below-mentioned topics in detail:

  • Scale Factor
  • Enlargement and Reduction of Plane Figures
  • Map and Scales
  • Length Scale

 

 

CONGRUENCE

SIMILARITY

Shape

Same

Same

Size

Same

May be Different

 

 

SCALE FACTOR

Scale Factor comes into the picture when we either reduce i.e. make an image smaller or enlarge the original image i.e. make it bigger.

Let’s understand this with the help of some examples:

 

Question 1: 

\(∆PQR\) is formed by scaling \(∆ABC\). What is the scale factor?

                                                            



 

Original

          

Resultant

 

Solution: 

\(∆ABC\) is the original triangle and \(∆PQR\) is the resultant triangle.

 \(\begin{align*} Scale\;factor &= \frac{Length \;Of \;Side \;In \;Resultant \;Image}{Length \;Of \;Corresponding \;Side \;In \;Original \;Image} \\ \\ \frac{PQ}{AB} &= \frac{5\;cm}{3\;cm} \\ \\ &= 1\frac23 \end{align*}\)

 

 

Question 2: 

\(∆ABC\) is similar to \(∆PQR\). \(∆PQR\) is formed by scaling \(∆ABC\). What is the scale factor?
What can we say about the relationship between the scale factor and the resultant image?

                                                   

 

Solution: 

\(∆ABC\) is the original triangle and \(∆PQR\) is the resultant triangle.

Scale factor \(\begin{align*} &= \frac{Length \;of \;side \;in \;Resultant \;Image}{Length \;of \;Corresponding \;side \;in \;original \;Image} \end{align*}\)

           \(\begin{align*} \frac{PQ}{AB} &= \frac{4\;cm}{8\;cm}\\ &= \frac12 \end{align*}\)

Hence, the scale factor is less than \(1\) and the resultant image is smaller than the original.

 

 

Question 3: 

\(∆ABC\) is similar to \(∆PQR\). \(∆PQR\) is formed by scaling \(∆ABC\). What is the scale factor?
What can we say about the relationship between the scale factor and the resultant image?

                                           

 

Solution: \(∆ABC\) is the original triangle and \(∆PQR\) is the resultant triangle.

Scale factor \(\begin{align*} &= \frac{Length \;of \;side \;in \;Resultant \;Image}{Length \;of \;Corresponding \;side \;in \;original \;Image} \end{align*}\)

           \(\begin{align*} \frac{PQ}{AB} &= \frac{4\;cm}{4\;cm}\\ &= 1 \end{align*}\)

Hence, the scale factor is equal to \(1\) and the resultant image is of the same size as the original.

 

 

Scale Factor

In general, a figure and its resultant image are similar.

Scale Factor

Resultant Image

\(k > 1\)

It would be enlarged i.e. resultant image would be bigger than the original.

\(0 < k < 1\)

Reduced/ Smaller than the original

\(k = 1\)

It would be unchanged i.e. congruent

 

Alternate Form of Scale Factor Formula

 

 

Question 4: 

\(∆ADE\) is an enlargement of \(∆ABC\) with a scale factor of \(\begin{align*} 1\frac {4}{9} \end{align*}\). Given that \(AC = 27cm\), find the length of \(CE\).

                                                       

 

Solution: 

Method 1:

\(∆ADE\) and \(∆ABC\) are similar because it is just an enlargement.

\(\begin{align*}   Scale \;factor&= \frac{Length \;of \;side \;in \;Resultant \;Image}{Length \;of \;Corresponding \;side \;in \;original \;Image} \\ \\ \frac{AE}{AC} &= 1\frac49\\ \\ \frac{AC+CE}{AC} &= \frac{13}9\\ \\ \frac{27+CE}{27} &= \frac{13}9\\ \\ CE &= 27 \bigg(\frac{13}9\bigg) - 27\\ \\ &= 12 \;cm \end{align*}\)

 

Method 2: 

\(\begin{align*} Resultant \;Length &= Scale \;Factor × Original \;Length \\ \\ AE &= 1\frac49 × AC\\ \\        &= 1\frac49 × 27\\ \\        &= 39 \;cm\\ \\ CE &= AE \;–\;AC\\ \\       &= 39 \;– \;27\\ \\        &= 12 \;cm   \end{align*}\)
    

 

 

Concept of Ratio

A ratio compares two quantities of the same kind that either has no units or are measured in the same units. 

The ratio \(a : b\), where \(a\) and \(b\) are positive integers, has no units.

 

 

Length Scale

For example, a map has a scale where \(1 \;cm\) represents \(1 \;km\). Express the map scale as a ratio in the form \(1: n\), where \(n\) is an integer.

\(\begin{align*} \\1\;cm &: 1\; km\\ \\ 1\;cm &: 1000 \;m\\ \\ 1\;cm &: 100000 \;cm\\ \\       1 &: 100000 \end{align*}\)

 

Let’s understand this with the help of some examples:

 

Question 5: 

A map has a scale of \(1 \;cm\) to \(4 \;km\). Find

  1. the actual distance, in \(km\), is represented by \(6.8 \;cm\) on the map.
  2. the length on the map represents an actual distance of \(15.8 \;km\).
  3. the scale of the map in the form \(\frac1n\), where \(n\) is an integer.

 

Solution: 

i) Map : Actual

   \(1 \;cm : 4 \;km\)

Multiplying both sides of the ratio by \(6.8\),
\(\begin{align*} \\(1 × 6.8) \;cm &: (4 × 6.8) \;km\\ \\         6.8 \;cm &: 27.2 \;km \end{align*}\)

Hence, the actual distance is \(27.2 \;km\).

 

ii) Map : Actual

   \(1 \;cm : 4 \;km\)

Dividing both sides of the ratio by \(4\),

\(0.25 \;cm : 1 \;km\)

Multiplying by \(15.8\),

\(3.95 \;cm : 15.8 \;km\)

Hence, the length on the map is \(3.95 \;cm\).

 

iii) \(\begin{align*} 1 \;cm : 4 \;km \end{align*}\)
      \(\begin{align*} 1 \;cm &: 4000 \;m\\ 1 \;cm &: 400000 \;cm \end{align*}\)

The scale of the map is \(\frac{1}{400000}\).

 

Continue Learning
Algebraic Fractions Direct & Inverse Proportion
Congruence And Similarity Factorising Quadratic Expressions
Further Expansion And Factorisation Quadratic Equations And Graphs
Simultaneous Equation
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