Study P5 English Synthesis & Transformation 1 : Reason - Geniebook

Synthesis & Transformation : Reason

 In this article, we will learn about how to use connectors of reason. The article covers details as per the Primary 5 English grade. We will study how to identify the following connectors of reason:

  •  because
  • as
  • since
  • so
  • due to

Besides, we will also learn about how to synthesise two clauses into a sentence using these connectors of reason. Ready?

 

What connectors are used to show reason?

Connectors or conjunctions are often used to join or synthesise two sentences/ clauses into a single sentence. One of the sentences describes the result. The other sentence describes the reason. These connectors join the reason with the result and hence they are called ‘connectors of reason’.

Connectors or conjunctions used to show reason include:

  • Because
  • As
  • Since
  • So
  • Due to

Let’s study these connectors in detail.

  • ‘Because’ Connector

It is used to focus on a clear reason for a resulting effect.

Example:

I like school. My teachers and friends are kind.

I like school because my teachers and friends are kind.

 

Result : I like school

Reason: My teachers and friends are kind

 

When we use ‘because’ connector, the reason always comes after it.

‘Result’ because ‘reason’.

 

School is great place to make friends. We can meet students of the same age in our class.

School is a great place to make friends because we can meet students of the same age in our class.

 

  • ‘As’ Connector

It is used to focus more on the resulting effect than the reason. We can use ‘as’ in the middle and the start of the sentence.

Example:

I hope he decided to attend school today. He will be receiving an award.

I hope he decided to attend school today as he will be receiving an award.

 

Everyone in class already knows one another. We have been in the same class for four years.

Everyone in class already knows one another as we have been in the same class for four years.

 

 

Practice Questions

Let us do some questions involving choosing the correct statement! 

How should you choose the correct option?

  • Check that the meaning of the sentence is not changed
  • There is no grammatical error
  • There is no spelling or punctuation error
  • Unnecessary or repetitive words have been left out
  • Identify the logical order: Which sentence is the reason and which sentence is the resulting effect?

 

Look at the sentences below and select the correct option that synthesises the sentences.

 

Question 1: 

It was about to rain before I left for school. I took an umbrella with me.

 

  1. It was about to rain before I left for school because I took my umbrella with me.
  2. Before I left for school, I took an umbrella with me because it was about to rain.
  3. I took an umbrella with me because it was about to rain.
  4. I took an umbrela before I left for school because it was about to rain.                                      

 

Solution: 

(2) Before I left for school, I took an umbrella with me because it was about to rain.


 

Question 2:

I knew he was in class. I saw him there.

 

  1. I knew he was in class as I saw him there.
  2. As I knew he was in class, I saw him there.
  3. I saw him in class as he was there.
  4. Knowing he was there as I saw him in class. 

 

Solution:

(1) I knew he was in class as I saw him there.

Explaination :

Reason: I saw him there

Result: I knew he was in class

 

Remember: You cannot have the ‘result’ after the word ‘as’. You can only have the ‘reason’ after ‘as’.

 

Question 3:

Manny was shy. He did not want to join in our conversation.

 

  1. Manny was sly as he did not want to join in our conversation.
  2. As he did not want to converse, Manny was shy.
  3. As shy as Manny was, he did not want to join us.
  4. As Manny was shy, he did not want to join in our conversation. 

 

Solution: 

(4) As Manny was shy, he did not want to join in our conversation. 


 

Question 4: 

Physical education lessons are important. They help students exercise regularly. 

 

  1. Physical education is important because students will exercise often.
  2. Because physical education lessons are important, students will exercise regularly.
  3. Lessons about physical education is important because students will want to exercise.
  4. Physical education lessons are important because they help students exercise regularly. 

 

Solution: 

(4) Physical education lessons are important because they help students exercise regularly. 


 

Question 5: 

George felt sick. He should not attend school.

 

  1. George felt sick as he should not attend school.
  2. As George felt sick, he should not attend school.
  3. George feeling sick as he attended school.
  4. School should not attend George as he was sick. 

 

Solution: 

(2) As George felt sick, he should not attend school.


 

  • ‘Since’ Connector

It is used to explain the reason why someone does something or the reason why a situation exists.

Example:

He is no longer in my class. I will not be seeing him often.

Since he is no longer in my class, I will not be seeing him often.

I shall not be able to attend school. I am Covid positive.

I shall not be able to attend school since I am Covid positive.

 

  • ‘So’ Connector

It is used with ‘that’ to introduce reason and explanation. The phrase is ‘so that’.

Example:

They studied very hard for the test. They would not fail.

They studied very hard for the test so that they would not fail.

 

He makes jokes in class. His friends will laugh.

He makes jokes in class so that his friends will laugh.

 

  • ‘Due to’ Connector

It is used to focus more on the reason that is in the form of a noun.

Example:

The student was careless. He shaded the wrong oval.

The student shaded the wrong oval due to his carelessness.

 

The student arrived late to class. As a result, the teacher was annoyed.

The teacher was annoyed due to the student arriving late to class.


 

Practice Questions

Look at the sentences below and select the correct option that synthesises the sentences

 

Question 1: 

School has been very busy. Co-curricular activities after school were made compulsory.

 

  1. School has been very busy since co-curricular activities have started.
  2. Since co-curricular activities after school were made compulsory, school has been very busy.
  3. Since curricular activities are important, school has been busy.
  4. School is busy since we have co-curricular activities after school. 

 

Solution:

(2) Since co-curricular activities after school were made compulsory, school has been very busy.


 

Question 2: 

Ivy achieves academic success. She has her parents’ dedication and support.

 

  1. Due to Ivy achieving sucess, her parents gave her dedication and support.
  2. Ivy achieves academic success due to her parents.
  3. Ivy has success due to dedication and support.
  4. Ivy achieves academic success due to her parents’ dedication and support. 

 

Solution: 

(4) Ivy achieves academic success due to her parents’ dedication and support. 


 

Question 3:

George performed outstandingly in the school exams. He wanted his parents to be proud of him.

 

  1. So, George performed outstandingly to make his parents proud.
  2. George performed outstandingly in the school exams so that his parents would be proud of him.
  3. George perfomed outstanding in the school exams so he wanted his parents to be proud.
  4. His parents were proud so that he performed outstandingly in the school exams. 

 

Solution: 

(2) George performed outstandingly in the school exams so that his parents would be proud of him.


 

Question 4: 

Max felt sick. He should self-isolate at home.

 

  1. Max felt sick since he self-isolated at home.
  2. Since Max felt unwell, he hid at home.
  3. Since Max felt sick, he should self-isolate at home.
  4. Since Max was self-isolating, he felt sick. 

 

Solution: 

(3) Since Max felt sick, he should self-isolate at home.


 

Question 5:

Jenny applied for the scholarship. Her parents encouraged her.

 

  1. Jenny’s parents were encouraging due to her applied scholarship.
  2. Due to Jenny applying for a scholarship , her parents’ felt encouraged.
  3. Jenny applied for the scholarship due to her parents’ encouraged her.
  4. Due to her parents’ encouragement, Jenny applied for the scholarship. 

 

Solution: 

(4) Due to her parents’ encouragement, Jenny applied for the scholarship. 


 

Conclusion

In this article, we learned about how we can join two clauses into a single sentence by using connectors of reason. We studied the connectors - because, as, since, so, and due to. The details and practice questions are covered as per the primary 5 English grade.The key concept here is to identify the result and the reason in the given clauses and join them appropriately with the connector.   


 

Continue Learning
Synthesis & Transformation : Reason Relative Pronouns: Who, Whom & Whose
Vocabulary: Synonyms & Word Substitution Pronouns: Demonstrative, Possessive & Reflexive
Editing: Sharpening Your Understanding Synthesis & Transformation: Reported Speech
Verbs: Modals & Interrogatives Synthesis & Transformation - Active And Passive Voice
Character Development: ALTOS & Creating A Memorable Character Grammar Cloze - Revision
Expand Your Vocabulary: Different Ways To Express Speech, Hearing & Seeing Comprehension & Question Tags
The Difference in Some Clozes Perfect Tense & Common Tense Errors
Interrogative Words & Modal Verbs Prepositions - All Types
Comprehension - Factual Questions Simple, Perfect And Continuous Tenses

 

Academic Topics
Primary
Primary 1
Primary 2
Primary 3
Primary 4
Primary 5
English
Synthesis & Transformation : Reason
Relative Pronouns: Who, Whom & Whose
Vocabulary: Synonyms & Word Substitution
Pronouns: Demonstrative, Possessive & Reflexive
Editing: Sharpening Your Understanding
Synthesis & Transformation: Reported Speech
Verbs: Modals & Interrogatives
Synthesis & Transformation - Active And Passive Voice
Character Development: ALTOS & Creating A Memorable Character
Grammar Cloze - Revision
Expand Your Vocabulary: Different Ways To Express Speech, Hearing & Seeing
Comprehension & Question Tags
The Difference in Some Clozes
Perfect Tense & Common Tense Errors
Interrogative Words & Modal Verbs
Prepositions - All Types
Comprehension - Factual Questions
Simple, Perfect And Continuous Tenses
+ More
Maths
+ More
Science
+ More
Primary 6
Secondary
Secondary 1
Secondary 2
Secondary 3
Secondary 4
+ More
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