Study S1 English English - Summary Writing 3 - Geniebook

Summary Writing

In this article, we will be learning about summary writing. This section is often the more difficult part of your comprehension passages. That said, let’s work on making it a little easier for you.
 

Summary Writing

Here are some of the important points to consider while working on summary writing.

  1. Identify main ideas and details
  2. Synthesise and summarise information
  3. Do not exceed 80 words
  4. Content (8m), Language (7m)
  5. Check your spelling and grammar
  6. Use connectors such as: furthermore, moreover, however 

 

Summary Style Band Descriptors

Marks

 

7

  • Sustained and successful use of own words and structures
  • Consistently well-organised ideas which convey the meaning of the text clearly and precisely

5 - 6

  • Frequent and usually appropriate use of own words and structures
  • Mostly well organised ideas which convey the meaning of the text clearly

3 - 4

  • Some use of own words and structures
  • Some attempts at organising ideas to convey the meaning of the text

1 - 2

  • Occasional attempts at use of own words and/ or structures
  • Attempts at conveying the meaning of the text

0

  • No creditable response.

 

 

Practice Questions

 

Question 1:

Child psychologists warn that watching fast-paced cartoons, even for just a few minutes, causes children to be easily distracted, and it will hinder abstract thinking and shorten attention spans.  A cheery yellow sponge and his best starfish friend might be a crowd favourite, but, this popular cartoon switches scenes on an average of every 11 seconds, as compared to a minute for other television programmes. Researchers who conducted an experiment, found that young children who watched this fast-paced cartoon would perform significantly worse in concentration tasks assigned to them.

 

Complete the following sentence by paraphrasing the highlighted phrase from the paragraph above:

 

Child psychologists have warned that watching cartoons...

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) results in the focus of children being distracted

(B) results in the children’s attention being diverted without much effort

(C) causes in their focus being diverted easily

(D) causes the children’s focus to be diverted

 

Answer:

B) results in the children’s attention being diverted without much effort

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (B) - “resulting in their attention being diverted without much effort”. “Attention being diverted” is a paraphrase for “distracted” and “without much effort” is a paraphrase for “easily”.

 

 

Question 2:

Child psychologists warn that watching fast-paced cartoons, even for just a few minutes, causes children to be easily distracted, and it will hinder abstract thinking and shorten attention spans. A cheery yellow sponge and his best starfish friend might be a crowd favourite, but, this popular cartoon switches scenes on an average of every 11 seconds, as compared to a minute for other television programmes. Researchers who conducted an experiment, found that young children who watched this fast-paced cartoon would perform significantly worse in concentration tasks assigned to them.

 

Complete the following sentence by paraphrasing the highlighted phrase from the paragraph above:

 

Child psychologists have warned that watching cartoons (1) results in the children’s attention being diverted without much effort. It (2) impedes abstract thinking…

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted phrase?

 

(A) shrinks attention length

(B) shrinks their ability to focus

(C) and shrinks their ability to focus

(D) and increases attention length

 

Answer:

C) and shrinks their ability to focus

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (C) - “and shrink their ability to focus”. 

Option (B) is not grammatically correct as it does not have a connector to complete the given sentence. 


 

Question 3:

Child psychologists warn that watching fast-paced cartoons, even for just a few minutes, will hinder abstract thinking and shorten attention spans, causing children to be easily distracted. A cheery yellow sponge and his best starfish friend might be a crowd favourite. However, this popular cartoon switches scenes on average every 11 seconds, as compared to a minute for other television programmes. Researchers who conducted an experiment, found that young children who watched this fast-paced cartoon would perform significantly worse in concentration tasks assigned to them.

 

…their ability to focus, (3) resulting in their attention being diverted without much effort. 

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) Furthermore, children cannot do well in concentration tasks if they have watched fast-paced cartoons

(B) Children cannot do well in concentration tasks

(C) Furthermore, children would perform more worse in concentration tasks

(D) However, children cannot do well in concentration tasks

 

Answer:

A) Furthermore, children cannot do well in concentration tasks if they have watched fast-paced cartoons

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (A) - “Furthermore, children cannot do well in concentration tasks if they have watched fast-paced cartoons”. So, the connector used here is “furthermore”, which shows that you are adding another point. “Cannot do well” is a paraphrase for “perform significantly worse”

 

 

Question 4:

While cartoons play a big role in children's entertainment, critics, many of whom include parents, have come out to say that cartoon time for children should be regulated more. Psychologists believe that violence levels in many television cartoons, including Pokémon and even Batman, can make young people more aggressive. This is due to the fact that heroes in these cartoons are famed for fighting their way out of problems, and in the process, saving the day. Children may start to adopt aggressive tendencies such as hitting, or mock punching their peers, as they think that these are perfectly acceptable reactions to problems.

 

…selfish conduct. (8) Children may also be more likely to adopt poorly balanced diets…

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) and be influenced to become more hostile

(B) and make young people more violent

(C) and make them more violent

(D) and make them more angry

 

Answer:

A) and be influenced to become more hostile

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (A) - “and be influenced to become more hostile”. Option (B) is incorrect as “make” is copied and no paraphrasing is done.

 

 

Question 5:

While cartoons play a big role in children's entertainment, critics, many of whom include parents, have come out to say that cartoon time for children should be regulated more. Psychologists believe that violence levels in many television cartoons, including Pokémon and even Batman, can make young people more aggressive. This is due to the fact that heroes in these cartoons are famed for fighting their way out of problems, and in the process, saving the day. Children may start to adopt aggressive tendencies such as hitting, or mock punching their peers, as they think that these are perfectly acceptable reactions to problems.

 

…be more likely to adopt poorly balanced diets (9) and be influenced to become more hostile.

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) Children may pick up aggressive tendencies such as beating people

(B) Children may adopt aggressive tactics such as hitting people

(C) Children will become more violent

(D) Children may also use violence assuming they are appropriate solutions

 

Answer:

D) Children may also use violence assuming they are appropriate solutions

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (D) - “Children may also use violence assuming they are appropriate solutions”. “Use violence” is paraphrased for “adopt aggressive”, “assuming” is paraphrased for, “they think that” and “acceptable reactions to problems” is paraphrased for “appropriate solutions”.

 

 

Practice Questions

 

The text in the paragraphs below is about the importance of literature to Singapore students.

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the reasons why students in Singapore should be encouraged to take Literature as a subject.

Use only information from Paragraphs 5 to 7 of Text 4.

Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not including the words given to help you begin).

Literature should be promoted to students in Singapore because… 

 

Paragraph 5 - Point 1

The reasons are numerous. Literature offers students insights into the human condition. It reflects, interprets and presents life artistically in quest of fundamental and universal truths. It teaches life’s most important lessons in thought-provoking and inspiring ways. It opens minds to possibilities that may be ambiguous, encouraging people to think beyond the obvious and familiar. 

 

Question 1:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

  1. It helps students gain a deeper understanding of humans
  2. It helps students gain a deeper understanding of the human psyche
  3. It helps students gain a deeper understanding of human circumstances
  4. It helps students gain a deeper understanding of the human condition

 

Choose the correct option.

  1. All
  2. 1, 2 & 3
  3. 1 & 2
  4. 3 & 4

 

Answer:

B) 1, 2 & 3

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (B) - “1, 2 & 3”. Statement (4) is not the best paraphrase as it has the phrase “human condition” which is copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 5 - Point 2

The reasons are numerous. Literature offers students insights into the human condition. It reflects, interprets and presents life artistically in quest of fundamental and universal truths. It teaches life’s most important lessons in thought-provoking and inspiring ways. It opens minds to possibilities that may be ambiguous, encouraging people to think beyond the obvious and familiar. 

 

Question 2:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Entails making meaning of life generally…
  2. …to pursue fundamental and universal realities about life
  3. Entails making meaning of life aesthetically…
  4. …to pursue basic and general realities about life

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & C
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

4) C & D

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (4) - “C & D”. Options (A) & (B) are not the best paraphrases as it has “generally” in option (A) & “fundamental” & “universal” in option (B) copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 5 - Point 3

The reasons are numerous. Literature offers students insights into the human condition. It reflects, interprets and presents life artistically in quest of fundamental and universal truths. It teaches life’s most important lessons in thought-provoking and inspiring ways. It opens minds to possibilities that may be ambiguous, encouraging people to think beyond the obvious and familiar. 

 

Question 3:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. It also imparts vital understandings about life…
  2. It also imparts important understandings about life…
  3. …in a reflective and motivating manner
  4. … in a thought-provoking and motivating manner

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & C
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

3) A & C

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (3) - “A & C”. Options (B) & (D) are not the best paraphrases as it has “important” in option (B) & “thought-provoking” in option (D) copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 5 - Point 4

The reasons are numerous. Literature offers students insights into the human condition. It reflects, interprets and presents life artistically in quest of fundamental and universal truths. It teaches life’s most important lessons in thought-provoking and inspiring ways. It opens minds to possibilities that may be ambiguous, encouraging people to think beyond the obvious and familiar. 

 

Question 4:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Prompting us to think beyond the obvious
  2. Prompting us to think out of the box
  3. Urging us to ruminate unconventionally
  4. Encouraging us to think unconventionally

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & C
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

2) B & C

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (2) - “B & C”. Options (A) & (D) are not the best paraphrases as it has “to think beyond the obvious” in option (A) & “encouraging us” in option (D) copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 6 - Point 5

Literature affords students a chance to explore other cultures and beliefs, to compare different values and world views. It allows appreciation of the diverse personalities that make up the world. Great literary works exercise the mind as they pose challenging questions regarding motivation and action.  

 

Question 5:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Nevertheless, it provides an opportunity to discover other cultures…
  2. …and beliefs
  3. Furthermore, it provides an opportunity to discover other cultures…
  4. …and ideologies

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & C
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

4) C & D

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (4) - “C & D”. Options (A) & (B) are incorrect as option (A) includes the wrong connector and option (B) has “beliefs” copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 6 - Point 6

Literature affords students a chance to explore other cultures and beliefs, to compare different values and world views. It allows appreciation of the diverse personalities that make up the world. Great literary works exercise the mind as they pose challenging questions regarding motivation and action.  

 

Question 6:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Evaluate various belief systems and global perspectives
  2. Compare different values and world views
  3. Question different values and global perspectives
  4. Contrast dissimilar ethical systems and global perspectives

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & D
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

3) A & D

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (3) - “A & D”. Options (B) & (C) are not the best paraphrases as option (B) is entirely copied and option (C) is incorrect paraphrasing.

 

 

Paragraph 6 - Point 7

Literature affords students a chance to explore other cultures and beliefs, to compare different values and worldviews. It allows appreciation of the diverse personalities that make up the world. Great literary works exercise the mind as they pose challenging questions regarding motivation and action.  

 

Question 7:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Appreciate the varying dispositions all around us
  2. Cherish the different dispositions in the world
  3. Realise the assorted characterisations all around us
  4. Acknowledge the diverse personalities that make up the world

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & D
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

2) B & C

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (2) - “B & C”. Options (A) & (D) are not the best paraphrases as option (A) has “appreciate” copied from the paragraph and option (D) has “diverse personalities that make up the world” copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Paragraph 6 - Point 8

Literature affords students a chance to explore other cultures and beliefs, to compare different values and worldviews. It allows appreciation of the diverse personalities that make up the world. Great literary works exercise the mind as they pose challenging questions regarding motivation and action.  

 

Question 8:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. Studying literature causes one to engage in critical thinking…
  2. …about intention and behaviour
  3. Studying literature enables us to exercise the mind…
  4. …regarding motivation and action

 

Choose the correct option.

 

  1. A & B
  2. B & C
  3. A & D
  4. C & D

 

Answer:

1) A & B

 

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (1) - “A & B”. Options (C) & (D) are not the best paraphrases as option (C) has “exercise the mind” copied from the paragraph and option (D) has “regarding motivation and action” copied from the paragraph provided.

 

 

Test Your Concepts

 

Answer the following questions based on the concepts we’ve covered in this article. If you get stuck, revisit the relevant section to revise the concepts.

 

Question 1:

Young children are very impressionable. They may pick up poor routines from the media content they are exposed to. For example, cartoon character Calliou refuses to share with his friends or little sister. His eating skills are worrying for someone his age, he has no manners and he talks back to his parents. Yet, he gets away with everything. Watching characters like Calliou will make children take a big step back in character development and encourage them to display self-centred behaviour. Some other cartoons display wrong values like eating indulgently to forget one's problems. Children have a tendency to eat almost twice as much indulgent and unhealthy food as others who are exposed to perceived healthier looking cartoon characters or no cartoon characters at all.

 

…children cannot do well in concentration tasks if they have watched fast-paced cartoons…

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) and it cause children to pick up poor habits

(B) but it can also cause children to develop negative habits

(C) it can also cause children to develop negative habits

(D) and it can also cause children to develop negative habits

 

 

Question 2:

Young children are very impressionable. They may pick up poor routines from the media content they are exposed to. For example, cartoon character Calliou refuses to share with his friends or little sister. His eating skills are worrying for someone his age, he has no manners and he talks back to his parents. Yet, he gets away with everything. Watching characters like Calliou will make children take a big step back in character development and encourage them to display self-centred behaviour. Some other cartoons display wrong values like eating indulgently to forget one's problems. Children have a tendency to eat almost twice as much indulgent and unhealthy food as others who are exposed to perceived healthier looking cartoon characters or no cartoon characters at all.

 

…fast-paced cartoons (5) and it can also cause children to develop negative habits.

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) Moreover, cartoons cause them to go backwards

(B) Moreover, cartoons may significantly degrade their character

(C) Nevertheless, cartoons may significantly degrade their character

(D) Nevertheless, cartoons cause them to go backwards

 

 

Question 3:

Young children are very impressionable. They may pick up poor routines from the media content they are exposed to. For example, cartoon character Calliou refuses to share with his friends or little sister. His eating skills are worrying for someone his age, he has no manners and he talks back to his parents. Yet, he gets away with everything. Watching characters like Calliou will make children take a big step back in character development and encourage them to display self-centred behaviour. Some other cartoons display wrong values like eating indulgently to forget one's problems. Children have a tendency to eat almost twice as much indulgent and unhealthy food as others who are exposed to perceived healthier looking cartoon characters or no cartoon characters at all.

 

…negative habits. (6) Moreover, cartoons may significantly degrade their character…

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) promote selfish behaviour

(B) therefore promote selfish conduct

(C) and promote selfish conduct

(D) and prevent self-centred behaviour

 

 

Question 4:

Young children are very impressionable. They may pick up poor routines from the media content they are exposed to. For example, cartoon character Calliou refuses to share with his friends or little sister. His eating skills are worrying for someone his age, he has no manners and he talks back to his parents. Yet, he gets away with everything. Watching characters like Calliou will make children take a big step back in character development and encourage them to display self-centred behaviour. Some other cartoons display wrong values like eating indulgently to forget one's problems. Children have a tendency to eat almost twice as much indulgent and unhealthy food as others who are exposed to perceived healthier looking cartoon characters or no cartoon characters at all.

 

…cartoons may significantly degrade their character (7) and promote selfish conduct.

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) Children may also have a tendency to adopt unhealthy diet

(B) Children may also be more likely to adopt poorly balanced diets

(C) Children may also be more like to adopt unhealthy food

(D) Children have a tendency to eat twice as much

 

 

Question 5:

The stress could lead to depression among youths. Youths could suffer from social withdrawal, where they no longer communicate with friends and family. They start to keep to themselves and shun away from others. Also, youths might experience loss of appetite. Food that was once loved by the individual is now no longer appetising or appealing.

 

One of the impacts of depression on youths in Singapore is…

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) withdrawal from others

(B) disengagement from others

(C) they no longer communicate with friends and family

(D) lack of communication with loved ones

 

 

Question 6:

The stress could lead to depression among youths. Youths could suffer from social withdrawal, where they no longer communicate with friends and family. They start to keep to themselves and shun away from others. Also, youths might experience loss of appetite. Food that was once loved by the individual is now no longer appetising or appealing.

 

…of the impacts of depression on youths in Singapore is (1) disengagement from others.

 

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

(A) Youths might experience loss of hunger

(B) Youth might not have an appetite

(C) They might feel less hungry

(D) They might not feel like eating anymore

 

 

Paragraph 7 - Point 9

Literature may not train students for a specific job, but it rounds out their education because it prepares them to not only cope with life but also make the most of it. Books addressing sensitive topics such as death, divorce and bullying assist children through these difficult times through therapeutic reading. More broadly, literature contributes to the evolution of a national identity. 

 

Question 7:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. It completes one’s curriculum engagements…
  2. It rounds out one’s education…
  3. …as it prepares them to cope with life
  4. …as it readies them to manage and maximise its potential

 

Choose the correct option.

 

(A) 1 & 2

(B) 2 & 3

(C) 1 & 4

(D) 3 & 4

 

 

Paragraph 7 - Point 10

Literature may not train students for a specific job, but it rounds out their education because it prepares them to not only cope with life but also make the most of it. Books addressing sensitive topics such as death, divorce and bullying assist children through these difficult times through therapeutic reading. More broadly, literature contributes to the evolution of a national identity. 

 

Question 8:

Which of the following options best paraphrases the highlighted point?

 

  1. It contributes to the evolution of a national identity
  2. It helps students develop a national identity
  3. It helps students develop a sense of who they are as part of a country
  4. It helps students carve what defines them as a people of their country

 

Choose the correct option.

 

(A) 1 & 2

(B) 2 & 3

(C) 1 & 4

(D) 3 & 4

 

 

Question 9:

Literature should be promoted to students in Singapore because it helps them gain an understanding of humans and entails making meaning of life aesthetically to pursue basic and general realities about life. It (13) __________ imparts vital understandings in a reflective and motivating manner, prompting them to think unconventionally. (14) __________, it provides an opportunity to discover cultures and ideologies and evaluate various beliefs and global perspectives. (15) __________, it enables them to engage in critical thinking about intention and behaviour and helps to develop a sense of who they are.  

 

Pick an appropriate word for blank number 13.

 

(A) Also

(B) But

(C) However

(D) Nevertheless

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Summary Writing Situational Writing - Formal Letter of Complaint
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Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Literary Devices
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