Study S1 English English - Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) Summary Writing Skills 1 - Geniebook

Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) - Summary Writing Skills

In this article, we will be learning about summary writing in comprehension. The comprehension passages that we will be looking at will be factual or objective passages and will not be telling a fictional story. Earlier, you would have learned about narrative passages, which recount a story in the past. However, non-narrative or expository passages are non-fictional and involve realistic events.

 

You should keep the following things in mind while working on summary writing.

  1. Identifying summary points
  2. Replacing key words using synonyms
  3. Replacing key words using antonyms
  4. Changing word forms

 

Skills Practice

Summarize the capabilities of the brown rat. Use your own words as far as possible.

It forages in darkness for prey, so it is peculiar that the brown rat has poor eyesight. It compensates for this with, first of all, an excellent sense of smell. They also have an outstanding sense of taste. They are able to detect poison, even down to one part per million. Despite often being dubbed as unwanted inhabitants, rats are interesting animals with incredible capabilities. A brown rat has strong feet, the two front paws each equipped with four claw-like nails, the rear paws even longer and stronger. It can run and climb buildings with squirrel-like agility. It is an excellent swimmer, surviving in rivers and bays, in sewer streams and toilet bowls.

 

Step 1: Highlight the main points that show the capabilities of the brown rat.

(Note: No numbers or quotes or redundancies in summary. If need be, infer the main points from examples. Restrict answers to physical features.)

Step 2: Replace key words with suitable synonyms or antonyms. If you cannot find a suitable paraphrase, try changing the word form.

  • Forages in darkness for prey
  • Excellent sense of smell
  • Outstanding sense of taste
  • Able to detect poison, even down to one part per million
  • Run and climb buildings with agility
  • An excellent swimmer

 

The brown rat can hunt for prey in blackness with its excellent sense of smell and taste. It can recognise the scent of poison, move fast, ascend buildings easily, and swim very well.

 

Identifying Points

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

Use only information from Paragraphs 1 to 3.

Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not counting the words given to help you begin).

One problem caused by rats is that they...

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

 

Paragraph 1:

The brown rat’s teeth grow at a rate of five inches per year. Rats, like mice, are attracted to chewing wires such as computer wires. One rat expert theorises that wires may be attractive to rats because of their resemblance to vines and the stalks of plants. After all, cables are like intertwined vines of the city. Rats are often responsible for electric cable breaks and a leading cause of fires of unknown origins. When it is not gnawing or feeding on trash, the brown rat digs. Anywhere there is dirt in a city, brown rats are likely to be digging, especially in parks. They dig holes in places such as parks to enter buildings and to make nests. Rat nests are commonly found beneath the floorboards of apartments.

 

Question 1:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

Answer:

The brown rat's teeth grow at a rate of five inches per year. Rats, like mice, are attracted to chewing wires such as computer wires. One rat expert theorises that wires may be attractive to rats because of their resemblance to vines and the stalks of plants.

 

 

Paraphrased:

One problem caused by rats is that they __________ .

(Choose the best option)

 

  1. are drawn to gnawing cables.
  2. are attracted to biting wires because they look like vines.
  3. resemble vines and the stalks of plants.
  4. have teeth that experience rapid growth.

 

Answer:

(1) - are drawn to gnawing cables

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (1) - “are drawn to gnawing cables”. “Gnawing” indicates a repetitive motion, which is similar to chewing. Option (2) is incorrect as “biting” does not indicate chewing as it can also indicate 1 bite only.

 

 

Question 2:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

A2: Rats are often responsible for electric cable breaks  

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. they are usually accountable for destroying cables
  2. they are to be blamed for destroying cables
  3. they are behind the destruction of cables
  4. they are liable for the destruction of cables

 

Answer:

The correct answer to this question is option (4) - “they are liable for the destruction of cables”.

 

 

Question 3:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

A3: and a leading cause of fires of unknown origins 

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. and pose as the most important reason why fires of unidentified sources occur.
  2. and pose as the most obvious reason why fires of unidentified sources occur.
  3. and pose as the most significant reason why fires of unidentified sources occur.
  4. and pose as the most common reason why fires of unidentified sources occur.

 

Answer:

(2) - and pose as the most obvious reason why fires of unidentified sources occur

Explanation: 

The correct answer to this question is option (2) - “and pose as the most obvious reason why fires of unidentified sources occur". "Obvious" is incorrect here as obvious means something right in front of you or staring at you in your face. The leading reason will be correct to mention here, which means important or significant or common reason, which is mentioned in the other options.

 

 

Question 4:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

B1 & A4: Brown rats are likely to be digging, especially in parks. They dig holes in places such as parks to enter buildings and to make nests.

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Brown rats make holes in parks to decamp buildings and furnish their residence.
  2. Brown rats make holes in parks to go into buildings and construct their homes.
  3. Brown rats make holes in parks to invade buildings and build their habitats.
  4. Brown rats make holes in parks to infiltrate buildings and build their dwellings.

 

Answer:

(1) - Brown rats make holes in parks to decamp buildings and furnish their residence

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (1) - “Brown rats make holes in parks to decamp buildings and furnish their residence". This is incorrect paraphrasing as we don't use the residence for rats. A residence is generally used for humans, and "decamp buildings" is also incorrect here.

 

 

Question 5:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

B2: Rat nests are commonly found beneath the floorboards of apartments. 

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Rat nests are frequently found under the flooring of flats.
  2. Rat nests are often found under the flooring of flats.
  3. Rat nests are sporadically found under the flooring of flats.
  4. Rat nests are regularly found under the flooring of flats.

 

Answer:

(3) - Rat nests are regularly found under the flooring of flats

Explanation:

The correct answer to this question is option (3) - “Rat nests are regularly found under the flooring of flats”. “Sporadically” means once in a while. So, this does not match the paraphrasing with the question asked.

 

 

Test Your Concepts

Answer the following questions based on the concepts we’ve covered in this article. If you get stuck, revisit the relevant section to revise the concepts.

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

Paragraph 2:

 

“Cluttered and unkempt alleyways associated in cities provide the ideal rat habitat, especially food-serving establishments,” writes Robert Corrigan in Rodent Control, a pest control manual. Their den is lined with soft debris, often shredded plastic garbage or shopping bags, but sometimes even grasses or plants; some rat nests have been found stuffed with the gnawed shavings of the wood-based, spring loaded snap traps that are used in attempts to “embrace” the rat. The back of the den, known as a bolt hole, then narrows into a long tunnel that opens up to another hole back on the street.

 

Question 1:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

B3: Cluttered and unkempt alleyways associated in cities provide the ideal rat habitat, especially food-serving establishments.

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. Rats at drawn to packed and messy passageways and restaurants.
  2. Rats at drawn to cramped and untidy passageways and restaurants.
  3. Rats at drawn to crammed and shabby passageways and restaurants.
  4. Rats at drawn to hidden and dank passageways and restaurants.

 

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

 

Paragraph 3:

Rats also inhabit subways, as most people in New York City and any city with a subway system are well aware. People hold the distorted view the subways are filled with rats. They will only populate in places where discarded human food and sewer leaks can be found. Many subway rats tend to live near stations that are themselves near fast-food restaurants. At the various subway stations near Herald Square, for example, people come down from the streets and throw the food that they have not eaten onto the tracks, along with newspapers and soda bottles and thousands of no longer-charged AA batteries, waiting to leak acid. Rats are not only shrewd in finding opaque spots to evade capture, but the rats are also voracious scavengers. This enables their population to explode.

 

Question 1:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

B4: Rats also inhabit subways….. they will only populate in places where discarded human food and sewer leak can be found.

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. They live in train stations in locations with food scraps and leaked sewage.
  2. They occupy train stations in areas with food waste and sewer leaks.
  3. They dwell in train stations in areas with food refuse and sewer leaks.
  4. They inhibit train stations in areas with food waste and sewer leaks.

 

 

Question 2:

Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the problems rats pose to the city [A] and where they are commonly found [B].

 

B4: Many subway rats tend to live near stations that are themselves near fast-food restaurants.

 

Which of these options is NOT suitably paraphrased?

 

  1. and near train stations that are close to fast-food outlets.
  2. and near train stations that are close to fast-food cafes.
  3. and near train stations that are close to fast-food establishments.
  4. and near train stations that are close to fast-food eateries.


 

Continue Learning
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Comprehension Skills (Inferential Questions)
Continuous Writing: Personal Recount Continuous Writing - Expository
Comprehension Skills (IYOW Questions) Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) - Dialogue Questions
Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) - Summary Writing Skills Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) - Flowchart Questions
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Unusual & Effective Questions Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) Direct Questions
Editing Comprehension Skills - Referencing Questions
Comprehension Skills - Direct Recall Of Relevant Material, Paraphrasing Text 2 Skills: Literacy Devices
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Literary Devices Irony
Summary Writing Situational Writing - Formal Letter of Complaint
Comprehension Skills - Language Arts Comprehension Skills - Vocabulary-based Questions
Comprehension Skills - Identifying Relevant Linguistic Expression Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Technique-Based Questions
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Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) - Summary Writing Skills
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) - Flowchart Questions
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Unusual & Effective Questions
Comprehension Skills (Non-narrative Text) Direct Questions
Editing
Comprehension Skills - Referencing Questions
Comprehension Skills - Direct Recall Of Relevant Material, Paraphrasing
Text 2 Skills: Literacy Devices
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Literary Devices
Irony
Summary Writing
Situational Writing - Formal Letter of Complaint
Comprehension Skills - Language Arts
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Comprehension Skills - Identifying Relevant Linguistic Expression
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