Study S2 English English - Comprehension Skills - Vocabulary Questions - Geniebook

Comprehension Skills - Vocabulary Questions

In this chapter, we would be learning how to identify words or phrases or expressions, to understand conversation questions etc. Also, we would be discussing why reading matters to children.

Let’s go through the topics to be covered in this chapter:

  • Vocabulary Questions

    • Identifying words/phrases/expressions
    • Answering in your own words
    • Understanding conversation questions
  • Factual Text

    • Why reading matters to children

 

Vocabulary Questions

  1. Pay close attention to whether the question requires you to identify the “word”, “phrase”, “expression” or “sentence”.
  2. Phrase and expression require the “subject” to be omitted from your answer.
  3. Remember to put the open inverted commas when you are expected to quote the answer. 
  4. For “in your own words” questions, ensure that you highlight and address every key term (especially adverbs) when you rephrase your answer.

Let’s understand the above topics with the help of some examples:

 

Question: 

The text describes the threat to houseboats in Sydney, Australia.

Sydney’s coast is home to unique residences – houseboats that add character to the city. Many people appreciate them but some locals and councillors see them as an eyesore. They have been trying to have the licenses revoked. The council would have gotten rid of them all if they could but to the relief of the people who like them, the New South Wales Maritime Services Board declined to relinquish its authority over the houseboats. They also continued to renew existing licenses. However, there is no guarantee that all remaining houseboats will preserve their leases. In 2011, the Mosman council contemplated a plan to phase out the three remaining houseboats in the Mosman suburb. However, it received ten public submissions arguing for the retention of the houseboats from a cultural perspective.

Identify the word(s) or phrase(s) in the excerpt which suggest:

  1. Standpoint: __________
  2. Considered: __________

 

Solution: 

(A)Standpoint” means how a person views something, and it’s a noun. Hence, the correct answer would be the word “Perspective”.

(B) “Considered” means having been thought about carefully. Hence, the correct answer would be the word “Contemplated”.

 

 

Question: 

The text below depicts the effects of using digital tools, on our brain development.

The rise of technology has led to the increased usage of digital tools and social media. These days, navigating a foreign city or communicating with a tourist in a different language is a few taps of a finger away. Overcoming scenarios that were once deemed challenging can now be easily solved with our smartphones. On the flipside, however, experts have sounded the alarm on being too quick to glorify the role that these gadgets play in our lives. Scientists have discovered that prolonged radiation exposure from our mobile phones destroys healthy cells in our brains, important for memory and learning. As people are increasingly reliant on technology instead of their brain, this leaves the right side of the brain – associated with concentration - underdeveloped. This in turn affects attention span and memory.

In your own words, explain what the writer means with reference to “sounded the alarm”.

 

Solution:

It means that experts are warning/alerting individuals about the harmful/damaging effects of the use of digital tools. 

 

Explanation.

Inferential questions require the use of clues found in the excerpt to enable you to make deductions. You will have to read between the lines and figure out what the writer is implying by what he has chosen to write.

To "sound the alarm" is an idiom used to alert other people about something dangerous or risky.



Why Reading Matters To Children

The text below is about the importance of reading to children. Read it carefully and answer the following questions.

       Albert Einstein was once asked what we could do to make our children smarter. He answered, “If you want your children to be intelligent, read them fairy tales. If you want them to be more intelligent, read them more fairy tales.”

       Increasingly, the research backs him up. The more we read to our children, the greater their vocabulary. The greater their vocabulary, the better they do at school. The better they do at school, the more successful they will be in life. As parents, isn’t this what we want?

 

Question: 

 Excerpt: (Para 2)

 Increasingly, the research backs him up. The more we read to our children, the greater their vocabulary. The greater their vocabulary, the better they do at school. The better they do at school, the more successful they will be in life. As parents, isn’t this what we want?

With regard to the segment written in blue, what is the positive effect of reading to children? Answer in your own words.

  1. Reading expands their knowledge of words
  2. Reading improves their word bank. 
  3. Reading gives children a wider range of vocabulary.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable? 

 

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 1 & 2
  4. 1, 2 & 3 

 

Answer: 

The word vocabulary can be rephrased to the knowledge of words or increase the recognition of words, so the word “Vocabulary” can be rephrased with a phrase. In this case, Option No D is incorrect because the word vocabulary repeats itself, hence Option No C is correct i.e. A & B.

 

 

Question: 

Excerpt:

Increasingly, the research backs him up. The more we read to our children, the greater their vocabulary. The greater their vocabulary, the better they do at school. The better they do at school, the more successful they will be in life. As parents, isn’t this what we want?

With regard to the segment written in blue, what is the positive effect of reading to children? Answer in your own words.

  1. It enhances their academic performance. 
  2. It makes them more scholarly.
  3. It improves their academic results.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1 & 3
  2. 2
  3. 1 & 2
  4. 1, 2 & 3

 

Answer: Scholarly are a group of people who are super smart and are excellent in academics. It is a very strong word as it means one does so well that he is one of the best.

“Enhance” and “Improves” means to get better. Hence, as A & C are correct, the answer is Option No A.

 

 

Question:

Excerpt:

Increasingly, the research backs him up. The more we read to our children, the greater their vocabulary. The greater their vocabulary, the better they do at school. The better they do at school, the more successful they will be in life. As parents, isn’t this what we want?

With regard to the segment written in blue, what is the positive effect of reading to children? Answer in your own words.

  1. They will experience greater success in their lives.
  2. They will also be more accomplished in future.
  3. They will also be able to achieve more in future.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1 & 3
  2. 2 & 3
  3. 1 & 2
  4. 3

Answer:  

The correct answer is Option No B i.e. 2 & 3.


 

Question:

Excerpt:

That study also found that children who were read to 3-5 times a week were almost six months ahead of their peers in reading and cognitive skills such as thinking, understanding, learning and remembering by the time they started school. These children often skimmed the text to grasp the gist of the story, while their peers lagged behind and often developed a cursory understanding of the story. 

In terms of reading skills, how do those children who were often read to differ from those who were not read to? Answer in your own words.

  1. Those who were read too often could read at a faster rate than those who were not read too often.
  2. Those who were read too often were able to gain a deeper understanding of the story than those who were not read too often.
  3. Those who read often were months ahead of their peers in terms of contemplation, comprehension, academics and memorisation.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1 & 3
  2. 2 & 3
  3. 2
  4. 1 & 2

Answer:

The correct answer is Option No D i.e. 1 & 2 because the word “faster” in Option 1 and “deeper” in Option 2 are both comparative words. Whereas, in Option No 3 contemplation means to think about a certain topic or certain subject, but it should not be used as the cognitive skills such as thinking, understanding, learning and remembering that do not represent cognitive skills.

 

 

Question:

Excerpt:

“Every book, no matter how trivial, is a record of the way the author sees the world, a map of their values,” says Jackie. “Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.”

“Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.” 

What is/are the literary device(s) used?

  1. Simile
  2. Metaphor
  3. Irony

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1
  2. 2 & 3
  3. 2
  4. 1 & 3

 

Answer: 

Simile:

A figure of speech, which, like the metaphor, implies a similarity between things otherwise dissimilar. The simile, however, always uses the words like, as or so to introduce the comparison: “As a jewel of gold in a swine’s snout, so is a fair woman which is without discretion.”

Metaphor:

A figurative statement that implies the similarity between things otherwise dissimilar. (e.g. Brutus is a jackal and a vulture hiding beneath the skin of a lion.)

Irony:

When expectations do not line up with reality. One famous example (in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar) is Antony’s description of Brutus as “an honourable man.” Since Brutus was one of Caesar’s assassins, Antony meant just the opposite. The irony is a softer form of sarcasm and shares with it the same contrast between apparent and real meaning.

Hence, the correct answer is Option No A i.e. Simile.

 

 

Question: 

Excerpt:

“Every book, no matter how trivial, is a record of the way the author sees the world, a map of their values,” says Jackie. “Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.”

How is the comparison of fictional books to kaleidoscopes effective?

  1. Just as a kaleidoscope allows one to see different patterns when the tube is rotated, 
  2. A fictional book allows the reader to gain different worldviews through studying different characters. 
  3. Just as a kaleidoscope is colourful and attractive when you look into it,
  4. A fictional book allows the reader to add colour to his life and make life more enjoyable.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1 & 4
  2. 1 & 2
  3. 3 & 4
  4. 3 & 2

 

Answer: 

The correct answer is Option No B i.e. 1 & 2 because the colourful and attractive part has nothing to do with allowing us to learn about different worldviews. When we get to see different patterns then we learn about different worldviews. 

All the different patterns in the kaleidoscope help us to look at the different worldviews of other people

 

 

Question:

Excerpt:

When reading to children, it is important not to judge the books children gravitate towards. They may be genres that are deemed ‘trivial’. If a child is into bathroom jokes, it may even be a good idea to put a joke book in the bathroom. If they are into electronics and car engines, give them a how-things-work book for their birthday. Judging their books means that reading is no longer intrinsically motivated, and it hinders us from nurturing their inquisitive nature.

What does ‘gravitate’ suggest about how children choose their books?

  1. They choose their books based on their personal interests.
  2. They choose their books based on their personal attraction to them.
  3. They choose their books based on their personal liking to them. 
  4. They choose their books based on the force coming from the centre of the earth.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1, 2 & 3
  2. 1 & 2
  3. 3 & D
  4. 2 & 3

Answer: 

The correct answer is Option No A i.e. 1, 2 & 3. Hence, children choose their books based on their personal interests, personal attraction and personal liking to them.

 

 

Question:

Excerpt:

When reading to children, it is important not to judge the books children gravitate towards. They may be genres that are deemed ‘trivial’. If a child is into bathroom jokes, it may even be a good idea to put a joke book in the bathroom. If they are into electronics and car engines, give them a how-things-work book for their birthday. Judging their books means that reading is no longer intrinsically motivated, and it hinders us from nurturing their inquisitive nature.

According to the author, why is judging books the children gravitate towards not encouraged? Answer in your own words. 

  1. It is because judging the books would destroy their natural desire to read, and this would curb their curiosity to learn.
  2. It is because judging the books would kill their natural urge to read, and this would diminish their desire to find out more.
  3. It is because judging the books would obliterate their natural instinct to read, and this would minimise their prying nature.

Which answer(s) is/are acceptable?

 

  1. 1, 2 & 3
  2. 1 & 2
  3. 2 & 3
  4. 1 & 3

Answer:

The correct answer is Option No B i.e. 1 & 1 as a curiosity to learn in Option 1 and desire to learn in Option 2 are positive words but prying in Option 3 is not. Prying means a busy body who pokes his nose into everybody’s business.

 

 

Conversation Questions

Question Skills

  1. Interpret what are the opinions being expressed.
  2. Highlight words like “explain his/her view” or “supports his/ her view”.
  3. Ensure that the keywords in the conversation are present in your answers.
  4. “Explain fully” also requires you to give your own interpretation of the information given.

 

Test Your Concepts

Answer the following questions based on the concepts we’ve covered in this article. If you get stuck, revisit the relevant section to revise the concepts.

 

Question: 

Excerpt: (Para 4)

“It’s likely that strong reading ability will enable children to absorb and understand new information, which affects their achievement in subjects that focus on reasoning,” says study co-author Dr Alice Sullivan. “They are also more likely to be creative, especially when fiction often requires imagination to clarify the context,” she added.

Here is part of a conversation between Aaron and Beatrice, who have read the article.

                     

How can Aaron fully explain his view, with reference to Paragraph 4? 

 

  1. Art is a subject that focuses on creative expression, so it is likely that they would do well in art.
  2. Students who read fiction tend to be more creative as they use imagination to clarify the context. 
  3. Students who read fiction tend to be more creative as they use imagination to clarify the context. Art is a subject that focuses on creative expression, so it is likely that they would do well in art.
  4. It is likely that strong reading ability will enable children to absorb and understand new information.

 

 

Question: 

Excerpt: (Para 6)

Books, particularly fiction, also build empathy, as children explore the world from another’s viewpoint, and they connect to those outside of their bubble. “Every book, no matter how trivial, is a record of the way the author sees the world, a map of their values,” says Jackie. “Books are like kaleidoscopes. The characters in the books have their unique worldviews.”

Here is part of a conversation between Aaron and Beatrice, who have read the article.

Quote a phrase from Paragraph 6 that best supports Beatrice’s point of view.

 

  1. “Connect to those outside of their bubble”
  2. “They connect to those outside of their bubble”
  3. “A map of their values”.
  4. “Have their unique worldviews” 
Continue Learning
Comprehension Skills - Vocabulary Questions Summary Writing
Expository Writing Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Flowchart Questions
Comprehension Skills (Non-Narrative Text) IYOW Questions Editing And Visual Text
Situational Writing Narrative Writing - Question Analysis And Building Characters
Comprehension Skills: Direct Questions Comprehension Skills - Unusual Effective Questions
Comprehension Skills - Point Identification and Paraphrasing Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Direct Questions
Comprehension Skills - Language Arts Comprehension Skills - Inference, Authorial and Literary Technique
Expository Writing - Identifying Structures Comprehension Skills - Inference Questions
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Comprehension Skills - Vocabulary Questions
Summary Writing
Expository Writing
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Flowchart Questions
Comprehension Skills (Non-Narrative Text) IYOW Questions
Editing And Visual Text
Situational Writing
Narrative Writing - Question Analysis And Building Characters
Comprehension Skills: Direct Questions
Comprehension Skills - Unusual Effective Questions
Comprehension Skills - Point Identification and Paraphrasing
Comprehension Skills (Narrative Text) Direct Questions
Comprehension Skills - Language Arts
Comprehension Skills - Inference, Authorial and Literary Technique
Expository Writing - Identifying Structures
Comprehension Skills - Inference Questions
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